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27 June, 2016

Services -- 4 : Using the SERVICE_NAMES parameter (non-RAC, PDB)

In my previous blog post, I have demonstrated using DBMS_SERVICE to create and start services.

But there is another way.  Using the SERVICE_NAMES parameter.  Going by most google references, SERVICE_NAME seems to be more popular than DBMS_SERVICE.

Can it be used in a Pluggable Database ?  Let' try.

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ . oraenv
ORACLE_SID = [oracle] ? CDB1
The Oracle base remains unchanged with value /u01/app/oracle
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jun 27 22:39:59 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1644167168 bytes
Fixed Size      2925024 bytes
Variable Size    973082144 bytes
Database Buffers   654311424 bytes
Redo Buffers     13848576 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> 

[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 27-JUN-2016 22:43:36

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER 
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=14129))
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


SQL> connect system/oracle@PDB1 
Connected.
SQL> show con_id

CON_ID
------------------------------
3
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
SQL> alter system set service_names='NEW_SVC_1,NEW_SVC_2';
alter system set service_names='NEW_SVC_1,NEW_SVC_2'
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65040: operation not allowed from within a pluggable database


SQL> !oerr ora 65040
65040, 00000, "operation not allowed from within a pluggable database"
// *Cause:  An operation was attempted that can only be performed in the root
//          container.
// *Action: Switch to the root container to perform the operation.
//

SQL> 


So, apparently, ORA-65040 means that we can't define SERVICE_NAMES for a PDB.

SQL> connect sys/oracle as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> show con_id

CON_ID
------------------------------
1
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT
SQL> alter system set service_names='NEW_SVC_1,NEW_SVC_2';

System altered.

SQL> 

[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 27-JUN-2016 22:53:56

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER 
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=14129))
Service "NEW_SVC_1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "NEW_SVC_2" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ tnsping NEW_SVC_1

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 27-JUN-2016 22:54:57

Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ora12102)(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = NEW_SVC_1)))
OK (30 msec)
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@new_svc_1

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jun 27 22:55:04 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied


Enter user-name: system/oracle@new_svc_1
Last Successful login time: Mon Jun 27 2016 22:44:13 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_id

CON_ID
------------------------------
1
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT
SQL> 


The new Services are actually running in the ROOT, not in the PDB .  Unlike my earlier blog post where I used the new services to connect to the PDB.

Therefore, for a PDB environment, I'd use DBMS_SERVICE as I've demonstrated here and here.
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20 June, 2016

Services -- 3 : Monitoring Usage of Custom Services

In my previous blog post, I had demonstrated a few custom services created and started with DBMS_SERVICE.

Let's look at a couple of examples of monitoring usage of these services.

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus system/oracle@PDB1

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jun 20 22:51:08 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Thu Jun 16 2016 23:23:50 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> execute dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> execute dbms_service.start_service('FINANCE');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> grant create table to hemant;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant select_Catalog_role to hemant;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> 

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@NEW_APP1

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jun 20 22:52:27 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Thu Jun 16 2016 23:28:01 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> create table obj_t1 tablespace hemant as select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL> insert into obj_t1 select * from obj_t1;

90935 rows created.

SQL> 

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@FINANCE

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Jun 20 22:53:54 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Mon Jun 20 2016 22:52:27 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> create table obj_t2_small tablespace hemant as select * from obj_T1 where rownum < 11;

Table created.

SQL> 

SQL> show user
USER is "SYSTEM"
SQL> select sid,serial#, to_char(logon_time,'DD-MON HH24:MI:SS'), service_name
  2  from v$session
  3  where username = 'HEMANT'
  4  order by logon_time
  5  /

       SID    SERIAL# TO_CHAR(LOGON_TIME,'DD-M
---------- ---------- ------------------------
SERVICE_NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------
        61      50587 20-JUN 22:52:27
NEW_APP1

        76      43919 20-JUN 22:53:54
FINANCE


SQL> 


Thus, we can see that V$SESSION tracks the SERVICE_NAME in use --- even though the USERNAME is the same in both sessions, the SERVICE_NAME is different.

SQL> col svc_name format a10
SQL> col stat_name format a25 trunc
SQL> select
  2  con_id, service_name SVC_NAME, stat_name, value
  3  from v$service_stats
  4  where service_name in ('NEW_APP1','FINANCE')
  5  and
  6  (stat_name like 'DB%' or stat_name like '%block%' or stat_name like 'redo%')
  7  order by 1,2,3
  8  /

    CON_ID SVC_NAME   STAT_NAME                      VALUE
---------- ---------- ------------------------- ----------
         3 FINANCE    DB CPU                        168973
         3 FINANCE    DB time                       771742
         3 FINANCE    db block changes                 653
         3 FINANCE    gc cr block receive time           0
         3 FINANCE    gc cr blocks received              0
         3 FINANCE    gc current block receive           0
         3 FINANCE    gc current blocks receive          0
         3 FINANCE    redo size                     100484

   CON_ID SVC_NAME   STAT_NAME                       VALUE
---------- ---------- ------------------------- ----------
         3 NEW_APP1   DB CPU                        869867
         3 NEW_APP1   DB time                     17415363
         3 NEW_APP1   db block changes               11101
         3 NEW_APP1   gc cr block receive time           0
         3 NEW_APP1   gc cr blocks received              0
         3 NEW_APP1   gc current block receive           0
         3 NEW_APP1   gc current blocks receive          0
         3 NEW_APP1   redo size                   25057520

16 rows selected.

SQL> 


So, even some statistics (unfortunately, not all -- the last time I checked in 11.2) are reported at the Service Level.  Thus, I can see that the users of NEW_APP1 consumed more CPU and DB Time and generated more changes and redo than users of FINANCE !  (Obviously, V$SERVICE_STATS reports statistics from the beginning of the instance so you should either user StatsPack (I haven't verified StatsPack reporting of statistics by individual service) or AWR (if you have the Diagnostic Pack licence) or your own collection scripts to report statistics for a specific window of time).
.
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16 June, 2016

Services -- 2 : Starting and Connecting to Services (non-RAC)

Continuing with the 12.1.0.2 non-RAC MultiTenant environment and two services demonstrated earlier,

I have restarted the environment today :

[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 22:57:17

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba'

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 22:57:31 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1644167168 bytes
Fixed Size      2925024 bytes
Variable Size   1040191008 bytes
Database Buffers   587202560 bytes
Redo Buffers     13848576 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> alter pluggable database open;
alter pluggable database open
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65000: missing or invalid pluggable database name


SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> 

grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:00:11

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER 
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=9213))
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


The two manually created services (NEW_APP1 and NEW_APP2) don't startup automatically.

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP1');
BEGIN dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP1'); END;

*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-44773: Cannot perform requested service operation.
ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_SERVICE_ERR", line 63
ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_SERVICE", line 395
ORA-06512: at line 1


SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus sys/oracle@PDB1 as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:03:05 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP2');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> 


[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:04:36

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER 
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=9213))
Service "NEW_APP1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "NEW_APP2" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


When I attempted to start the custom service (that, per the previous post, was created in PDB1) when still connected to CDB$ROOT, the command fails.  I had to connect to PDB1 to start the service.

SQL> create tablespace hemant ;                           

Tablespace created.

SQL> create user hemant identified by hemant default tablespace hemant quota unlimited on hemant;

User created.

SQL> grant create session to hemant;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> 
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ tnsping NEW_APP1

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:09:00

Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ora12102)(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = NEW_APP1)))
OK (0 msec)
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ tnsping NEW_APP2

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:09:05

Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ora12102)(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = NEW_APP2)))
OK (0 msec)
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ 
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@NEW_APP1

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:09:29 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_id

CON_ID
------------------------------
3
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@NEW_APP2

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:09:48 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Thu Jun 16 2016 23:09:29 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_id

CON_ID
------------------------------
3
SQL> show conn_name
SP2-0158: unknown SHOW option "conn_name"
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
SQL> 


The newly created user HEMANT belongs to the Database.  The user is not tied to a Service.  He can use either Service (whichever is running) to connect to the Database.  But the two Services have two different TNSNAMES.ORA entries --- differing by the SERVICE_NAME specification.

Thus, the DBA could configure some application servers to use one service name and other application servers to use another service name.

An example of such a configuration is where the first set of application servers could be for Finance Applications called "FINANCE" and the second set of servers could be for HR Applications (in the *same* database) called "HR".  Here I create the two services but start only the FINANCE service.

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus system/oracle@pdb1 

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:13:55 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> exec dbms_service.create_service('FINANCE','FINANCE');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('FINANCE');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.create_service('HR','HR');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> 

[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl services

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:15:45

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER 
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=9213))
Service "FINANCE" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "NEW_APP1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "NEW_APP2" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
    Handler(s):
      "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


Now the user should be able to connect to FINANCE, but not to HR.

[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ tnsping FINANCE

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:18:16

Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ora12102)(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = FINANCE)))
OK (0 msec)
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ tnsping HR

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 16-JUN-2016 23:18:18

Copyright (c) 1997, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = ora12102)(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = HR)))
OK (0 msec)
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ 
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@FINANCE

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:18:57 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Thu Jun 16 2016 23:09:48 +08:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ 
[oracle@ora12102 Desktop]$ sqlplus hemant/hemant@HR

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Thu Jun 16 23:19:23 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect
descriptor


Enter user-name: 


The user could connect to FINANCE but the request to HR returned ORA-12514.
(Notice how "tnsping HR" is successful but the connection is not ?  That is because tnsping only tests if the listener is running, it does not test if the database instance and service are both running).

So, using multiple services, the DBA can "provision" the same database to multiple applications.  The entry-point is the SERVICE_NAME,  not the USERNAME.   Users and Services are independent of each other.

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.
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14 June, 2016

Services -- 1 : Services in non-RAC 12c MultiTenant

It is generally accepted that service definition is required in RAC environments.

However, the concept of Services was made available in 8i --- predating RAC.   Services can be defined in non-OPS / non-RAC / non-MultiTenant / MultiTenant environments.  A single PDB in a 12c MultiTenant database can host multiple services.

A quick start to the implementation.

Note : srvctl is to be used to create and manage services in a RAC environment.  srvctl registers the services with the Cluster Registry.  In a Non-RAC environment, use DBMS_SERVICE.

First, no services are running :

[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 14-JUN-2016 23:14:48

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                14-JUN-2016 23:14:28
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 19 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/ora12102/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


Next, I startup the MultiTenant CDB database.

[oracle@ora12102 ~]$ . oraenv
ORACLE_SID = [CDB1] ? CDB1
The Oracle base remains unchanged with value /u01/app/oracle
[oracle@ora12102 ~]$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba'

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Tue Jun 14 23:15:47 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1644167168 bytes
Fixed Size      2925024 bytes
Variable Size   1056968224 bytes
Database Buffers   570425344 bytes
Redo Buffers     13848576 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> alter pluggable database pdb1 open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> 


[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 14-JUN-2016 23:17:23

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                14-JUN-2016 23:14:28
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 2 min. 54 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/ora12102/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=5501))(Security=(my_wallet_directory=/u01/app/oracle/admin/CDB1/xdb_wallet))(Presentation=HTTP)(Session=RAW))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 


So, now I have the default pdb1 srevice for pluggable database PDB1 running.

Next, I manually create two new services and start them.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@ora12102 ~]$ sqlplus 'sys/oracle@PDB1 as sysdba'

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Tue Jun 14 23:20:30 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_id     

CON_ID
------------------------------
3
SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
SQL> 
SQL> exec dbms_service.create_service(service_name=>'NEW_APP1',network_name=>'NEW_APP1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.create_service('NEW_APP2','NEW_APP2');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_service.start_service('NEW_APP2');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> 
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 14-JUN-2016 23:22:54

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                14-JUN-2016 23:14:28
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 8 min. 26 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/ora12102/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=ora12102)(PORT=5501))(Security=(my_wallet_directory=/u01/app/oracle/admin/CDB1/xdb_wallet))(Presentation=HTTP)(Session=RAW))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "CDB1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "CDB1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "NEW_APP1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "NEW_APP2" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "CDB1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[grid@ora12102 ~]$ 



The two new services NEW_APP1 and NEW_APP2 that I created in PDB1 are now registered with the listener.  Remember that these services are in the Database Instance CDB1.

My next blog post will be about using these services.

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13 June, 2016

Data Recovery Advisor (11g)

Here's my YouTube video on using the 11g Data Recovery Advisor from the RMAN command line.

Other videos are in my YouTube Channel.

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02 June, 2016

Compression -- 8 : DROPping a Column of a Compressed Table

Building on the series on Compression .....

What happens if we try to DROP a column in a Compressed Table ?  How can we execute the DROP ?

Starting with BASIC Compression.


SQL> connect hemant/hemant
Connected.
SQL> create table compress_basic as select * from source_data where 1=2;

Table created.

SQL> alter table compress_basic compress;

Table altered.

SQL> insert /*+ APPEND */ into compress_basic
  2  select * from source_data           
  3  where rownum < 100001;

100000 rows created.

SQL> commit;
 
Commit complete.

SQL> select compression, compress_for
  2  from user_tables
  3  where table_name = 'COMPRESS_BASIC'
  4  /

COMPRESS COMPRESS_FOR
-------- ------------------------------
ENABLED  BASIC

SQL> alter table compress_basic drop (object_name);
alter table compress_basic drop (object_name)
                                 *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-39726: unsupported add/drop column operation on compressed tables


SQL> 
SQL> !oerr ora 39726
39726, 00000, "unsupported add/drop column operation on compressed tables"
// *Cause:  An unsupported add/drop column operation for compressed table
//          was attemped.
// *Action: When adding a column, do not specify a default value.
//          DROP column is only supported in the form of SET UNUSED column
//          (meta-data drop column).

SQL> 


So, I would have to set the column to UNUSED !

SQL> alter table compress_basic set unused column object_name;

Table altered.

SQL> alter table compress_basic drop (object_name);
alter table compress_basic drop (object_name)
                                 *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00904: "OBJECT_NAME": invalid identifier


SQL> alter table compress_basic drop unused columns;
alter table compress_basic drop unused columns
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-39726: unsupported add/drop column operation on compressed tables


SQL> 


I can't drop a column from a table with Compression enabled.

Is there another way ?

SQL> alter table compress_basic move nocompress;

Table altered.

SQL> alter table compress_basic drop unused columns;

Table altered.

SQL> 


To actually execute the DROP, I have to Uncompress the table !

 So : Remember : You have to be careful when designing a table that you intend to Compress.  You won't be able to DROP columns !


Repeating the test case with OLTP Compression :

SQL> create table compress_oltp as select * from source_data where 1=2;

Table created.

SQL> alter table compress_oltp compress for oltp;

Table altered.

SQL> select compression, compress_for 
  2  from user_tables
  3  where table_name = 'COMPRESS_OLTP'
  4  /

COMPRESS COMPRESS_FOR
-------- ------------------------------
ENABLED  ADVANCED

SQL> 
SQL> insert into compress_oltp
  2  select * from source_data
  3  where rownum < 100001;

100000 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> alter table compress_oltp drop (object_name);

Table altered.

SQL> 


Much easier, I could DROP the column.  But, wait.  Is there a catch ?

SQL> drop table compress_oltp purge;

Table dropped.

SQL> create table compress_oltp as select * from source_data where 1=2;

Table created.

SQL> alter table compress_oltp compress for oltp;

Table altered.

SQL> select compression, compress_for
  2  from user_tables
  3  where table_name = 'COMPRESS_OLTP'
  4  /

COMPRESS COMPRESS_FOR
-------- ------------------------------
ENABLED  ADVANCED

SQL> alter table compress_oltp nocompress;

Table altered.

SQL> select compression,  compress_for
  2  from user_tables
  3  where table_name = 'COMPRESS_OLTP'
  4  /

COMPRESS COMPRESS_FOR
-------- ------------------------------
DISABLED

SQL> alter table compress_oltp drop (object_name);
alter table compress_oltp drop (object_name)
                                *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-39726: unsupported add/drop column operation on compressed tables


SQL> 


If I ALTER the table to NOCOMPRESS (which can take effect only on *new* rows, not existing rows), I cannot DROP a column.  This is because Oracle is unsure if there is a mix of Comressed and Non-Compressed rows in the table now.

What I'd have to do is to rebuild it as a NOCOMPRESS table.

SQL> alter table compress_oltp move nocompress;

Table altered.

SQL> alter table compress_oltp drop (object_name);

Table altered.

SQL> 


So, once a table is set to COMPRESS OLTP and then set to NOCOMPRESS, you can't simply DROP a column.


This test-case came out of an issue a friend of mine faced today.  He found that he couldn't drop a column from a table that was formerly set to COMPRESS FOR OLTP.

I pointed him to Support Document 1288918.1

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