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01 August, 2015

RMAN -- 6 : RETENTION POLICY and CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME

Most people read the documentation on CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME and believe that this parameter *guarantees* that Oracle will retain backup records for that long.  (Some do understand that backup records may be retained longer, depending on the availability of slots (or "records") for the various types of metadata in the controlfile).

However, .... as you should know from real-world experience ... there is always a "BUT".

Please read Oracle Support Note "How to ensure that backup metadata is retained in the controlfile when setting a retention policy and an RMAN catalog is NOT used. (Doc ID 461125.1)" and Bug 6458068

Oracle may need to "grow" the controlfile when adding information about ArchiveLogs or BackupSets / BackupPieces.
An example is this set of entries that occurred when I had created very many archivelogs and backuppieces for them :
Trying to expand controlfile section 13 for Oracle Managed Files
Expanded controlfile section 13 from 200 to 400 records
Requested to grow by 200 records; added 9 blocks of records


To understand the contents of the controlfile see how this listing shows that I have space for 400 records of Backup Pieces and am currently using 232 records.  :

SQL> select * from v$controlfile_record_section where type like '%BACKUP%' order by 1;

TYPE                         RECORD_SIZE RECORDS_TOTAL RECORDS_USED FIRST_INDEX LAST_INDEX LAST_RECID
---------------------------- ----------- ------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ----------
BACKUP CORRUPTION                     44           371            0           0          0          0
BACKUP DATAFILE                      200           245          159           1        159        159
BACKUP PIECE                         736           400          232         230         61        261
BACKUP REDOLOG                        76           215          173           1        173        173
BACKUP SET                            40           409          249           1        249        249
BACKUP SPFILE                        124           131           36           1         36         36

6 rows selected.

SQL> 


However, if I start creating new Backup Pieces without deleting older ones (without Oracle auto-deleting older ones) and Oracle hits the allocation of 400 records, it may try to add new records.  Oracle then prints a message (as shown above) into the alert.log.  Oracle may overwrite records older than control_file_record_keep_time.  If necesssary, it tries to expand the controlfile. If, however, there is not enough filesystem space (or space in the raw device or ASM DiskGroup) to expand the controlfile, it may have to ovewrite some records from the controlfile.  If it has to overwrite records that are older than control_file_record_keep_time, it provides no warning.  However, if it has to overwrite records that are not older than the control_file_record_keep_time, it *does* write a warning to the alert.log

I don't want to violate the Oracle Support policy and quote from the Note and the Bug but I urge you to read both very carefully.  The Note has a particular line about whether there is a relationship between the setting of the control_file_record_time and the Retention Policy.  In the Bug, there is one particularly line about whether the algorithm to extend / reuse / purge records in the controlfile is or is not related to the Retention Policy.  So it IS important to ensure that you have enough space for the controlfile to grow in case it needs to expand space for these records.

Also, remember that not all Retention Policies are defined in terms of days.  Some may be defined in terms of REDUNDANCY (the *number* of Full / L0 backups that are not to be obsoleted).  This does NOT relate to the number of days because Oracle can't predict how many backups you run in a day / in a week / in a month.  Take an organisation with a small database and runs 3 Full / L0 backups per day versus another with a very large database that runs Full / L0 backup only once a fortnight !  How many days of Full / L0 backups would each have to retain if the REDUNDANCY is set to, say, 3 ?

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26 July, 2015

RMAN -- 5c : (Some More) Useful KEYWORDs and SubClauses

Here are a few more useful KEYWORDs and SubClauses


AS COPY  and   COPY OF
Unlike the BACKUPSET format that is the default for an RMAN Backup, Image Copy backups (those that would be akin to backups created as User Managed Backups without RMAN) can be created in RMAN using the AS COPY specifer.   COPY OF allows backups of such backup copies.

Thus, I take an Image Copy backup of a datafile while the database is OPEN :

RMAN> backup as copy datafile 7 ;       

Starting backup at 26-JUL-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=35 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00007 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T214649 RECID=2 STAMP=886110422
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
Finished backup at 26-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_26/o1_mf_s_886110425_bv9s6trt_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15

RMAN> 

Did you note how datafile 7 was copied to '/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf' by the BACKUP AS COPY command ?
Without me specifying a FORMAT, it created the copy in the datafile location under the FRA, not in the backupset location.
Next, I take a backup of this Image Copy backup.

RMAN> backup copy of datafile 7;

Starting backup at 26-JUL-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: including datafile copy of datafile 00007 in backup set
input file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 26-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_26/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150726T214939_bv9scm4h_.bkp tag=TAG20150726T214939 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 26-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_26/o1_mf_s_886110582_bv9scp9w_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15

RMAN> 

This time the copy in the datafile location was backed up to a backupset location.  This new backup is not an Image Copy format of datafile 7.  Note the differences in the filenames.   The Image Copy done with BACKUP AS COPY has an OMF filename similar to that of the source datafile.  The BackupSet format includes the TAG as part of the BackupPiece filename.

Let's run some checks, from RMAN and SQLPlus :

SQL> select file_name from dba_data_files where file_id=7;

FILE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

SQL>

RMAN> list backup of datafile 7 completed after "trunc(sysdate)";

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
91      Full    7.40M      DISK        00:00:01     26-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 103   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150726T214939
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_26/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150726T214939_bv9scm4h_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 91
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  7       Full 14141418   26-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

RMAN> list copy of datafile 7;

List of Datafile Copies
=======================

Key     File S Completion Time Ckp SCN    Ckp Time       
------- ---- - --------------- ---------- ---------------
2       7    A 26-JUL-15       14141418   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf
        Tag: TAG20150726T214649


RMAN>              

The LIST BACKUP command shows me the BackupSet backup of the Image Copy. If I want to see the Image Copy that I created first, I must run the command LIST COPY. LIST BACKUP shows BackupSets, not Image Copies themselves. Image Copies are displayed by the LIST COPY.

What is the advantage of Image Copy Backups ?  There are a few.
1)  You can integrate this with your User Managed Backups methods.
2)  You can "clone" a database without having to run a RESTORE(yes, with BACKUP AS COPY DATABASE)
3)  You can selectively relocate one or more datafiles with additonal usage of the SWITCH DATAFILE TO COPY command (see my previous post "BACKUP AS COPY")

Let me demonstrate advantage 3 with a tablespace.

SQL> select file_name from dba_data_files where tablespace_name = 'HEMANT';

FILE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf

SQL> 

RMAN> backup as copy tablespace HEMANT;

Starting backup at 26-JUL-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00006 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkkj1_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T220953 RECID=4 STAMP=886111799
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00007 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkrl9_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T220953 RECID=5 STAMP=886111807
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00008 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkzo0_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T220953 RECID=6 STAMP=886111825
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:25
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00009 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tlrr3_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T220953 RECID=7 STAMP=886111843
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00011 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf
output file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tm7z2_.dbf tag=TAG20150726T220953 RECID=8 STAMP=886111860
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
Finished backup at 26-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_26/o1_mf_s_886111863_bv9tmq38_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15

RMAN> 
RMAN> sql 'alter tablespace HEMANT offline';

sql statement: alter tablespace HEMANT offline

RMAN> switch tablespace HEMANT to copy;

datafile 6 switched to datafile copy "/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkkj1_.dbf"
datafile 7 switched to datafile copy "/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkrl9_.dbf"
datafile 8 switched to datafile copy "/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkzo0_.dbf"
datafile 9 switched to datafile copy "/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tlrr3_.dbf"
datafile 11 switched to datafile copy "/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tm7z2_.dbf"

RMAN> recover tablespace HEMANT;

Starting recover at 26-JUL-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00

Finished recover at 26-JUL-15

RMAN> sql 'alter tablespace HEMANT online';

sql statement: alter tablespace HEMANT online

RMAN> 

SQL> select file_name from dba_data_files where tablespace_name = 'HEMANT';

FILE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkkj1_.dbf
/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkrl9_.dbf
/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tkzo0_.dbf
/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tlrr3_.dbf
/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9tm7z2_.dbf

SQL> 

Note how all the datafiles of the tablespace were copied and then the active copy of the datafiles has been switched to the new location (/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/). Have the old datafiles (/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/) been deleted ?
Let's see :

RMAN> list copy of tablespace HEMANT;

List of Datafile Copies
=======================

Key     File S Completion Time Ckp SCN    Ckp Time       
------- ---- - --------------- ---------- ---------------
9       6    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf

10      7    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

2       7    A 26-JUL-15       14141418   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf
        Tag: TAG20150726T214649

11      8    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf

12      9    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf

13      11   A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf


RMAN> 
RMAN> delete copy of tablespace HEMANT;

released channel: ORA_DISK_1
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=44 device type=DISK
List of Datafile Copies
=======================

Key     File S Completion Time Ckp SCN    Ckp Time       
------- ---- - --------------- ---------- ---------------
9       6    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf

10      7    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

2       7    A 26-JUL-15       14141418   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf
        Tag: TAG20150726T214649

11      8    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf

12      9    A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf

13      11   A 26-JUL-15       14142997   26-JUL-15      
        Name: /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf


Do you really want to delete the above objects (enter YES or NO)? YES
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf RECID=9 STAMP=886111907
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf RECID=10 STAMP=886111907
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bv9s6b4o_.dbf RECID=2 STAMP=886110422
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf RECID=11 STAMP=886111907
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf RECID=12 STAMP=886111907
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf RECID=13 STAMP=886111907
Deleted 6 objects


RMAN>   

(Note how datafile 7 had two datafile copies). I could delete the old copies of the datafiles.

 Note : The example with tablespace HEMANT uses OMF files. If I had non-OMF files, I could use the "%b" FORMAT modifier -- as demonstrated here.



ARCHIVELOG LIKE
The LIKE Keyword allows you to identify individual or groups of ArchiveLogs.

RMAN> list archivelog all;

List of Archived Log Copies for database with db_unique_name HEMANTDB
=====================================================================

Key     Thrd Seq     S Low Time 
------- ---- ------- - ---------
14      1    628     A 13-JUN-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_628_bsgrjztp_.arc

18      1    629     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_629_bsgrk0tw_.arc

16      1    630     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_630_bsgrk48j_.arc

22      1    631     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_631_bsgv6f02_.arc

17      1    631     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_631_bsgrk49w_.arc

23      1    632     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_632_bsgv6f1y_.arc

15      1    632     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_632_bsgrk8od_.arc

24      1    633     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_633_bsgv6f36_.arc

25      1    1       A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_08/o1_mf_1_1_bst8r4yr_.arc

26      1    2       A 08-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_08/o1_mf_1_2_bstbf4nw_.arc

27      1    3       A 08-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_3_bv9vbq7c_.arc

28      1    4       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_4_bv9vbr1p_.arc

29      1    5       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_5_bv9vbtwz_.arc


RMAN> list archivelog like '%2015_07_26%';

List of Archived Log Copies for database with db_unique_name HEMANTDB
=====================================================================

Key     Thrd Seq     S Low Time 
------- ---- ------- - ---------
27      1    3       A 08-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_3_bv9vbq7c_.arc

28      1    4       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_4_bv9vbr1p_.arc

29      1    5       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_5_bv9vbtwz_.arc


RMAN> list archivelog like '%_6%';

List of Archived Log Copies for database with db_unique_name HEMANTDB
=====================================================================

Key     Thrd Seq     S Low Time 
------- ---- ------- - ---------
14      1    628     A 13-JUN-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_628_bsgrjztp_.arc

18      1    629     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_629_bsgrk0tw_.arc

16      1    630     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_630_bsgrk48j_.arc

22      1    631     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_631_bsgv6f02_.arc

17      1    631     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_631_bsgrk49w_.arc

23      1    632     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_632_bsgv6f1y_.arc

15      1    632     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_632_bsgrk8od_.arc

24      1    633     A 04-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_04/o1_mf_1_633_bsgv6f36_.arc

27      1    3       A 08-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_3_bv9vbq7c_.arc

28      1    4       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_4_bv9vbr1p_.arc

29      1    5       A 26-JUL-15
        Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/archivelog/2015_07_26/o1_mf_1_5_bv9vbtwz_.arc


RMAN> 

I can take advantage of this to backups of selective archivelogs.

RMAN> backup as compressed backupset archivelog like '%2015_07_26%';

Starting backup at 26-JUL-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed archived log backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archived log(s) in backup set
input archived log thread=1 sequence=3 RECID=27 STAMP=886112599
input archived log thread=1 sequence=4 RECID=28 STAMP=886112600
input archived log thread=1 sequence=5 RECID=29 STAMP=886112602
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 26-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_26/o1_mf_annnn_TAG20150726T222529_bv9vgs8r_.bkp tag=TAG20150726T222529 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 26-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_26/o1_mf_s_886112730_bv9vgtc5_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUL-15

RMAN> 

This is useful if you have been switching the archivelog destination to different locations during the course of the day.
.
.
.

19 July, 2015

RMAN -- 5b : (More) Useful KEYWORDs and SubClauses

Here are a few more useful KEYWORDs and SubClauses

SECTION SIZE 
SECTION SIZE allows you to split a single Database file into multiple sections.  Note : A Database File  span BackupPieces.  The difference between BackupPieces and Sections is that the former are serially done while Sections can be done in-parallel.  (SECTION SIZE cannot be used with MAXPIECESIZE).  Here, I first show a datafile in 4 BackupPieces defined by SECTION SIZE.

SQL> select file_id, size_mb
  2  from
  3  (select file_id, bytes/1048576 size_mb
  4  from dba_data_files
  5  order by 2 desc)
  6  where rownum = 1;

   FILE_ID    SIZE_MB
---------- ----------
         2       1259

SQL> 

RMAN> backup datafile 2 section size  400M;

Starting backup at 19-JUL-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=40 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 1 through 51200
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf5020_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T223055 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:26
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 51201 through 102400
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 2 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 2 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf5sw2_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T223055 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 102401 through 153600
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 3 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 3 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf76wl_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T223055 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:56
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 153601 through 161152
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 4 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 4 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf8y7p_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T223055 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 19-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885508385_btqf92c7_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15

RMAN>  
RMAN> list backup of datafile 2 completed after "trunc(sysdate)";


List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
68      Full    452.02M    DISK        00:02:09     19-JUL-15      
  List of Datafiles in backup set 68
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  2       Full 14135401   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

  Backup Set Copy #1 of backup set 68
  Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time Compressed Tag
  ----------- ------------ --------------- ---------- ---
  DISK        00:02:09     19-JUL-15       YES        TAG20150719T223055

    List of Backup Pieces for backup set 68 Copy #1
    BP Key  Pc# Status      Piece Name
    ------- --- ----------- ----------
    71      1   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf5020_.bkp
    72      2   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf5sw2_.bkp
    73      3   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf76wl_.bkp
    74      4   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T223055_btqf8y7p_.bkp

RMAN> 
   

Note how the blocks of the datafile are allocated to each Section.  Section 1 is for Blocks 1 to 51200.  Section 2 is for Blocks 51201 to 102400.  And so on for subsequent Sections.
Next, I run two channels for in-parallel backups of the sections, still comprising of one BackupSet for the datafile.

RMAN> run
2> {    
3> allocate channel d1 device type disk;
4> allocate channel d2 device type disk; 
5> backup datafile 2 section size 400M;
6> }

released channel: ORA_DISK_1
allocated channel: d1
channel d1: SID=40 device type=DISK

allocated channel: d2
channel d2: SID=44 device type=DISK

Starting backup at 19-JUL-15
channel d1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel d1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 1 through 51200
channel d1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel d2: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel d2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 51201 through 102400
channel d2: starting piece 2 at 19-JUL-15
channel d1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvrr_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T224411 comment=NONE
channel d1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:26
channel d1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel d1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 102401 through 153600
channel d1: starting piece 3 at 19-JUL-15
channel d2: finished piece 2 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvvv_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T224411 comment=NONE
channel d2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:51
channel d2: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel d2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00002 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
backing up blocks 153601 through 161152
channel d2: starting piece 4 at 19-JUL-15
channel d2: finished piece 4 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfzglf_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T224411 comment=NONE
channel d2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel d1: finished piece 3 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfyo8v_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T224411 comment=NONE
channel d1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:50
Finished backup at 19-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885509127_btqg07qq_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
released channel: d1
released channel: d2

RMAN> list backupset 72;


List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
72      Full    452.02M    DISK        00:01:13     19-JUL-15      
  List of Datafiles in backup set 72
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  2       Full 14136475   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

  Backup Set Copy #1 of backup set 72
  Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time Compressed Tag
  ----------- ------------ --------------- ---------- ---
  DISK        00:01:13     19-JUL-15       YES        TAG20150719T224411

    List of Backup Pieces for backup set 72 Copy #1
    BP Key  Pc# Status      Piece Name
    ------- --- ----------- ----------
    81      1   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvrr_.bkp
    82      2   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvvv_.bkp
    84      3   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfyo8v_.bkp
    83      4   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfzglf_.bkp

RMAN> 

Thus, we have BackupSet 72 consisting of the 4 BackupPieces.  The BackupPieces were created using 2 Channels running in-parallel with different ranges of Blocks.



FORMAT (and the FRA)
If you use the FRA with db_recovery_file_dest, Oracle tracks usage against the limit specified by db_recovery_file_dest_size.
However, if you use the FORMAT clause, such backups are *not* tracked as being part of the FRA.  This also means that Oracle would under-report usage of the FRA and wouldn't be able to identify when the FRA nears the limit.

For example, I first report the FRA usage and then run Backups without and and then with the FORMAT clause.  Note how the FRA usage report reflects the Backups without the FORMAT clause only.

SQL> set linesize 132
SQL> show parameter db_recovery

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_recovery_file_dest                string      /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA
db_recovery_file_dest_size           big integer 8G

SQL> select * from v$flash_recovery_area_usage;

FILE_TYPE            PERCENT_SPACE_USED PERCENT_SPACE_RECLAIMABLE NUMBER_OF_FILES
-------------------- ------------------ ------------------------- ---------------
CONTROL FILE                          0                         0               0
REDO LOG                              0                         0               0
ARCHIVED LOG                        .27                         0              10
BACKUP PIECE                      32.96                      22.4              34
IMAGE COPY                            0                         0               0
FLASHBACK LOG                         0                         0               0
FOREIGN ARCHIVED LOG                  0                         0               0

7 rows selected.

SQL> 

RMAN> backup as compressed backupset tablespace hemant filesperset=1;

Starting backup at 19-JUL-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=44 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00006 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh2vkb_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T230355 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00007 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh2yoc_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T230355 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00008 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh31vh_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T230355 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh34ys_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T230355 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00011 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh382g_.bkp tag=TAG20150719T230355 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 19-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885510251_btqh3c9d_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15

RMAN> 

SQL> select * from v$flash_recovery_area_usage;

FILE_TYPE            PERCENT_SPACE_USED PERCENT_SPACE_RECLAIMABLE NUMBER_OF_FILES
-------------------- ------------------ ------------------------- ---------------
CONTROL FILE                          0                         0               0
REDO LOG                              0                         0               0
ARCHIVED LOG                        .27                         0              10
BACKUP PIECE                      33.54                     22.92              40
IMAGE COPY                            0                         0               0
FLASHBACK LOG                         0                         0               0
FOREIGN ARCHIVED LOG                  0                         0               0

7 rows selected.

SQL> 

RMAN> backup as compressed backupset tablespace hemant format '/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/%U' filesperset=1;

Starting backup at 19-JUL-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=41 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00006 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/2vqcfk8t_1_1 tag=TAG20150719T230709 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00007 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/30qcfk90_1_1 tag=TAG20150719T230709 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00008 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/31qcfk93_1_1 tag=TAG20150719T230709 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/32qcfk96_1_1 tag=TAG20150719T230709 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00011 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/33qcfk9a_1_1 tag=TAG20150719T230709 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 19-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885510445_btqh9f6x_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15

RMAN> 

SQL> select * from v$flash_recovery_area_usage;

FILE_TYPE            PERCENT_SPACE_USED PERCENT_SPACE_RECLAIMABLE NUMBER_OF_FILES
-------------------- ------------------ ------------------------- ---------------
CONTROL FILE                          0                         0               0
REDO LOG                              0                         0               0
ARCHIVED LOG                        .27                         0              10
BACKUP PIECE                      33.65                      23.5              41
IMAGE COPY                            0                         0               0
FLASHBACK LOG                         0                         0               0
FOREIGN ARCHIVED LOG                  0                         0               0

7 rows selected.

SQL> 

Note how the first backup (which did NOT specify a FORMAT clause) consisted of 5 BackupPieces for the Datafiles plus 1 for the AutoBackup. The NUMBER_OF_FILES for BACKUP PIECE in v$flash_recovery_area_usage was updaetd from 34 to 40.
However, while the second backup with the FORMAT clause (actually pointing to the same physical directory) created 5 Datafile BackupPieces and 1 AutoBackup again, the count in v$flash_recovery_area_usage did NOT increment by 6  (the increment by 1 is for the AutoBackup).

Thus, for this second, with FORMAT clause, backup, while a LIST BACKUP command would show it and the backup would be usable for Restore scenarios, v$flash_recovery_area_usage does not track it.  Therefore, Oracle hasn't incremented the PERCENT_SPACE_USED either.  This PERCENT_SPACE_USED is very important for Oracle to automatically purge older (i.e. OBSOLETE) backups when space usage hits critical limits.



TAG
The TAG clause allows us to specifically define our own Tags.  Note my previous backups showed a TAG that indicates merely date and time as in :

RMAN> list backup summary;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
28      B  F  A DISK        23-JUN-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150623T170721
29      B  F  A DISK        23-JUN-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150623T170846
30      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
31      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
32      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
33      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
34      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
35      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
36      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150704T131927
37      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
38      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
39      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150708T211118
40      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150708T215526
60      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T222911
61      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150712T222957
62      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
63      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
64      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
65      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
66      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
67      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150712T223226
68      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       4       1       YES        TAG20150719T223055
69      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T223305
71      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T224023
72      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       4       1       YES        TAG20150719T224411
73      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T224527
74      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230053
75      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230119
76      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
77      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
78      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
79      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
80      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
81      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230411
82      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
83      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
84      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
85      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
86      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
87      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230725

RMAN> 

However, I can use the TAG clause to identify specific Backups distinctively. Later, for the RESTORE command, the known TAG becomes useful as I can RESTORE FROM TAG. Here's how I create backups with specific TAGs.

RMAN> backup as compressed backupset tablespace HEMANT TAG 'Hemant_19Jul15';

Starting backup at 19-JUL-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=64 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00006 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
input datafile file number=00007 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
input datafile file number=00008 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
input datafile file number=00009 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
input datafile file number=00011 name=/home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_HEMANT_19JUL15_btqhy6js_.bkp tag=HEMANT_19JUL15 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
Finished backup at 19-JUL-15

Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15
piece handle=/NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885511125_btqhyoo9_.bkp comment=NONE
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 19-JUL-15

RMAN>
RMAN> list backup of tablespace hemant completed after "(sysdate-5/1440)";


List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
88      Full    33.82M     DISK        00:00:07     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 100   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: HEMANT_19JUL15
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_HEMANT_19JUL15_btqhy6js_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 88
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  6       Full 14138686   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
  7       Full 14138686   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
  8       Full 14138686   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
  9       Full 14138686   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
  11      Full 14138686   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf

RMAN> list backup of tablespace HEMANT summary;


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
37      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
38      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
60      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T222911
62      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
63      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
64      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
65      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
66      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
74      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230053
76      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
77      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
78      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
79      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
80      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
82      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
83      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
84      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
85      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
86      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
88      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        HEMANT_19JUL15

RMAN> 

Notice how the latest backup of Tablespace HEMANT is tagged by the TAG I had specified during the BACKUP run.




completed after "..date/time clause"
Note how, in the listings above, I have used the 'completed after "trunc(sysdate)" '  and  'completed after "(sysdate-5/1440)" to specify a Date/Time as a filter.

Here's another example to show Backups completed in the month of July-2015. (The two backups of 23-Jun-2015 are excluded).

RMAN> list backup summary completed after "to_date('JUL-15','MON-RR')";


List of Backups
===============
Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Compressed Tag
------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---------- ---
30      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
31      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
32      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
33      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
34      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
35      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150704T121859
36      B  F  A DISK        04-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150704T131927
37      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
38      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150708T211100
39      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150708T211118
40      B  F  A DISK        08-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150708T215526
60      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T222911
61      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150712T222957
62      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
63      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
64      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
65      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
66      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150712T223210
67      B  F  A DISK        12-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150712T223226
68      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       4       1       YES        TAG20150719T223055
69      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T223305
71      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T224023
72      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       4       1       YES        TAG20150719T224411
73      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T224527
74      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230053
75      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230119
76      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
77      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
78      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
79      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
80      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230355
81      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230411
82      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
83      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
84      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
85      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
86      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        TAG20150719T230709
87      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T230725
88      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       YES        HEMANT_19JUL15
89      B  F  A DISK        19-JUL-15       1       1       NO         TAG20150719T231845

RMAN> 

This shows that I can use Date Format masks in my filter.

Here's another example (note : if you use 'between', it seems that the two date formats must match, else no records are returned as in the first listing below):

RMAN> list backup completed between
2> "to_date('19-JUL-2015 22:45:00','DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"
3> and 
4> "to_date(sysdate)";

specification does not match any backup in the repository

RMAN> list backup completed between
2> "to_date('19-JUL-2015 22:45:00','DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"
3> and
4> "to_date('19-JUL-2015 23:15:00','DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')";


List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
72      Full    452.02M    DISK        00:01:13     19-JUL-15      
  List of Datafiles in backup set 72
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  2       Full 14136475   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

  Backup Set Copy #1 of backup set 72
  Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time Compressed Tag
  ----------- ------------ --------------- ---------- ---
  DISK        00:01:13     19-JUL-15       YES        TAG20150719T224411

    List of Backup Pieces for backup set 72 Copy #1
    BP Key  Pc# Status      Piece Name
    ------- --- ----------- ----------
    81      1   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvrr_.bkp
    82      2   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfxvvv_.bkp
    84      3   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfyo8v_.bkp
    83      4   AVAILABLE   /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T224411_btqfzglf_.bkp

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
73      Full    9.36M      DISK        00:00:00     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 85   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150719T224527
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885509127_btqg07qq_.bkp
  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 19-JUL-15
  SPFILE db_unique_name: HEMANTDB
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 14136581     Ckp time: 19-JUL-15

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
74      Full    33.82M     DISK        00:00:23     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 86   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230053
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230053_btqgx5vx_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 74
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  6       Full 14137744   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf
  7       Full 14137744   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf
  8       Full 14137744   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf
  9       Full 14137744   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf
  11      Full 14137744   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
75      Full    9.36M      DISK        00:00:00     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 87   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150719T230119
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885510079_btqgxzd8_.bkp
  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 19-JUL-15
  SPFILE db_unique_name: HEMANTDB
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 14137759     Ckp time: 19-JUL-15

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
76      Full    7.41M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 88   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230355
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh2vkb_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 76
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  6       Full 14137868   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
77      Full    7.40M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 89   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230355
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh2yoc_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 77
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  7       Full 14137870   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
78      Full    7.38M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 90   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230355
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh31vh_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 78
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  8       Full 14137872   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
79      Full    7.43M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 91   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230355
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh34ys_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 79
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  9       Full 14137874   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
80      Full    7.91M      DISK        00:00:01     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 92   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230355
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150719T230355_btqh382g_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 80
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  11      Full 14137876   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
81      Full    9.36M      DISK        00:00:00     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 93   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150719T230411
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885510251_btqh3c9d_.bkp
  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 19-JUL-15
  SPFILE db_unique_name: HEMANTDB
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 14137883     Ckp time: 19-JUL-15

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
82      Full    7.41M      DISK        00:00:01     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 94   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230709
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/2vqcfk8t_1_1
  List of Datafiles in backup set 82
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  6       Full 14138235   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4vt_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
83      Full    7.40M      DISK        00:00:01     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 95   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230709
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/30qcfk90_1_1
  List of Datafiles in backup set 83
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  7       Full 14138237   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jct_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
84      Full    7.38M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 96   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230709
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/31qcfk93_1_1
  List of Datafiles in backup set 84
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  8       Full 14138239   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x0_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
85      Full    7.43M      DISK        00:00:02     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 97   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230709
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/32qcfk96_1_1
  List of Datafiles in backup set 85
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  9       Full 14138241   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst90jf1_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
86      Full    7.91M      DISK        00:00:01     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 98   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: YES  Tag: TAG20150719T230709
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/backupset/2015_07_19/33qcfk9a_1_1
  List of Datafiles in backup set 86
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  11      Full 14138243   19-JUL-15 /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradata/HEMANTDB/datafile/o1_mf_hemant_bst9o4x5_.dbf

BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
87      Full    9.36M      DISK        00:00:00     19-JUL-15      
        BP Key: 99   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150719T230725
        Piece Name: /NEW_FS/oracle/FRA/HEMANTDB/autobackup/2015_07_19/o1_mf_s_885510445_btqh9f6x_.bkp
  SPFILE Included: Modification time: 19-JUL-15
  SPFILE db_unique_name: HEMANTDB
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 14138250     Ckp time: 19-JUL-15

RMAN> 

Thus, you can identify a list of backups by time ranges as well !
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